EMS – Electrical Muscle Stimulation is known as Electromyostimulation and as neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Electric impulses are generated by an electrical device and transmitted to the skin through electrodes. The electrodes may be gel based, rubber based, or specially designed. The impulses generated by the device are designed to mimic signals from the central nervous system – which causes muscles to contract and relax.
EMS can be used for the following applications:
Prof. Wolfgang Kemmler: In the case of WB-EMS, stimulation current is applied to the muscles akin to the well-known local EMS technology. The new aspect with WB-EMS is that it not only activates one individual body area but is able to simultaneously stimulate all major muscle groups, but with varying regional intensity. All in all, this pertains to up to twelve body regions with a surface area measuring approximately 2,800 square centimeters.
WB-EMS is used in preventive medicine, particularly in the case of systemic diseases. In older people, for example, this pertains to so-called sarcopenia, the loss of muscle tissue as part of the aging process. Having said that, EMS or WB-EMS can also be used in the fitness or competitive sports realm. In competitive sports, it is less used to facilitate improvements in specific disciplines but rather to help strengthen and maintain the back muscles. This applies to runners or cyclists, who don’t want to invest time in preventive back muscle exercises for example. On the whole, there are many different areas of application.
WB-EMS should be recognized as a strength oriented training technology, that is to say, as long as the training goals are not too specific, WB-EMS can be seen as a time-efficient option to a strength training program. Existing research shows that the effect of WB-EMS on muscle mass and hypertrophy is comparable. However, it produces a somewhat lesser effect on functional abilities like muscle strength or performance.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy involves the use of low-voltage electric currents to treat pain. Electrodes are placed on the body to deliver electricity that travels through the nerve fibers. The electric currents block the pain receptors from being sent from the nerves to the brain.
TENS therapy can be used to treat both chronic (long lasting) and acute (short-term) pain. The most common conditions that TENS therapy is used to treat are:
TENS is a method of electrical stimulation which primarily aims to provide a degree of symptomatic pain relief by exciting sensory nerves and thereby stimulating either the pain gate mechanism and/or the opioid system. The different methods of applying TENS relate to these different physiological mechanisms. The effectiveness of TENS varies with the clinical pain being treated, but research would suggest that when used ‘well’ it provides significantly greater pain relief than a placebo intervention.
There is an extensive research base for TENS in both the clinical and laboratory settings. It is worth noting that the term TENS could represent the use of ANY electrical stimulation using skin surface electrodes which has the intention of stimulating nerves. In the clinical context, it is most commonly assumed to refer to the use of electrical stimulation with the specific intention of providing symptomatic pain relief.
TENS is most commonly delivered from small, hhand-held battery powered devices. They can be purchased ‘over the counter’ in many (but not all) countries. In some locations, they need to be ‘prescribed’ by a therapist, doctor or other healthcare practitioner. Most multi-modal clinic based stimulators include TENS as an option, though its use in the clinic is less well supported than its use as a home based, patient ,delivered therapy.
Peripheral subcutaneous field stimulation (PSFS), also called peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNFS) or target field stimulation, is a form of neuromodulation that is intended to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Applications of PSFS being evaluated are craniofacial stimulation for headache/migraine, craniofacial pain or occipital neuralgia. PSFS is investigated for low back pain, neck and shoulder pain, inguinal and pelvic pain, thoracic pain, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, and post-herpetic neuralgia.
As devices and technologies specifically designed for peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) emerge, they promise a number of potential advantages over current PNS devices or SCS devices currently used for PNS applications. One emerging trend is the miniaturization of the PNS system. Small devices present several advantages over larger devices, such as decreased trauma from surgery, easier less invasive placement, the lack of extensive tunneling in some patients, and a reduced discomfort from the size and weight of the IPG once it has been implanted.
Auricular acupuncture is a distinct form of acupuncture. Electrical stimulation of acupoints (electroacupuncture) increases the effects of acupuncture. An auricular electroacupuncture device, the P-Stim, is available. Clinical studies in outpatients have investigated the P-Stim in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its use for minor surgery. In chronic cervical or low back pain, auricular electroacupuncture is more effective than conventional auricular acupuncture. Auricular electroacupuncture reduced pain and remifentanil consumption during oocyte aspiration when compared with conventional auricular acupuncture or a sham treatment.
Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation or NMES uses a device that sends electrical impulses to nerves. This input causes muscles to contract. The electrical stimulation can increase strength and range of motion, and offset the effects of disuse. It is often used to “re-train” or “re-educate” a muscle to function and to build strength after a surgery or period of disuse. https://youtu.be/T0DbOHsl5hI
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses low energy electrical pulses to to generate muscle contraction in otherwise paralyzed / immobilized limbs to produce functions such as grasping, walking, bladder voiding and standing. This technology was originally used to develop neuroprostheses that were implemented to permanently substitute impaired functions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), head injury, stroke and other neurological disorders.
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of neurostimulation that uses constant, low direct current delivered via electrodes on the head; it can be contrasted with cranial electrotherapy stimulation which generally uses alternating current the same way. It was originally developed to help patients with brain injuries or psychiatric conditions like major depressive disorder.
FNS is the use of low-voltage electricity to elicit a skeletal muscle response. The electrical excitability of the nerves and muscle tissue provides the basis for its therapeutic use. Normally, movement of the extremities originates in the motor areas of the brain. For various reasons, such as trauma, stroke, neurological disease (e.g. multiple sclerosis), congenital deficiencies, or tumor, the neural pathway between the cerebral cortex and the muscles may be disrupted or damaged.
The basic premise of functional neuromuscular stimulation is that a viable muscle, even though atrophied, can still be activated and controlled by means of electrical stimulation applied below the level of injury. (Also called ENS)
High voltage pulsed stimulation (HVPS) is a non-invasive method of applying high voltage, low amperage and direct current to a specific region of the body. HVPS has evolved as an electrotherapeutic agent being adopted to alleviate pain, stimulate blood flow, and promote wound healing. HVPS USES a very short pulse duration between 20-200µs, voltage greater than 100 volts in a therapeutic manner, stimulation range between 0-150Hz, and a twin peak monophasic waveform.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a form of neurostimulation. TMS is a non-invasive procedure in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small targeted region of the brain via electromagnetic induction. During a TMS procedure, a magnetic field generator, or “coil”, is placed on the scalp. The coil is connected to a pulse generator, or stimulator, that delivers a changing electric current to the coil. TMS is used diagnostically to measure the connection between the central nervous system and skeletal muscle to evaluate damage in a wide variety of disease states, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, movement disorders, and motor neuron diseases.
Microcurrent therapy uses extremely low-level electrical currents (microcurrents) to improve athletic performance and treat nerve and muscle pain, inflammation, a variety of mental health challenges and aids cells in getting rid of toxins. Each tissue type in your body has its own unique electrical frequency, which may be disrupted by injury, disease, or cellular toxins. Simply put, MCT helps your body by restoring cells to their normal frequencies, resulting in remarkable improvements in pain, inflammation, and function.
MCT has been used to successfully improve:
Microcurrent therapy does not simply treat signs and symptoms, it addresses the body directly at the cellular level. MCT stimulates a dramatic increase in ATP, the energy that fuels the body’s biochemical functions. It increases protein synthesis, which is how muscles grow and tissues repair. MCT also:
For years, TENS has dominated the pain relief world. It has been used for all manner of pain related issues, such as arthritis and chronic back pain. It bombards the nerve endings with electricity, blocking the pain signals to the brain, however, although this procedure can stop your pain it has a number of drawbacks. Firstly, it only has a success rate of between 40 and 50%, about a third of all people find the intensity of the current unpleasant due to the tingling or throbing sensation the device causes.
By definition microcurrent devices stimulate the affected tissue with less than 1mA of electrical current, most commonly delivered with hand-held probes or self-adhesive electrodes that bracket the treated area.
Erotic electrostimulation is a sexual practice involving the application of electrical stimulation to the nerves of the body, with particular emphasis on the genitals, using a power source (such as a TENS, EMS, Violet wand etc.) for purposes of sexual stimulation.
Vaginal electrical stimulation (VES) is a technique sometimes used in women’s pelvic floor physical therapy. The pelvic floor muscles work together to keep the urinary and bowel systems working smoothly. They are important for a woman’s sexual health, as they are involved in arousal, lubrication, and orgasm. Sometimes, the pelvic floor muscles need strengthening and toning. There are a number of different techniques that can be used, including VES.
Alpha-Stim gives physical therapy and occupational therapy professionals two unique treatment methods: Manual Microcurrent Electrical Therapy (MET) and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES). MET delivers a current in alpha waveform directly to areas experiencing tightness and pain. This process happens through two separate points of body contact.
CES, on the other hand, offers a stream of an alpha waveform directly to the brain via a set of ear clips. The current thus regulates hormone and neurotransmitter imbalances. Both of these chemicals are associated with mood disturbances.
MET alters the way the cells of the targeted muscle group interpret pain. This treatment is proven to reduce and manage acute and chronic discomfort. A safe, non-invasive, and convenient session typically takes only two to five minutes.
Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) for Pet Pain Relief. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a valuable tool for treating orthopedic and neurological injuries and diseases. It helps to relieve muscle spasms, prevents muscle atrophy, improves joint mobility and circulation, increases muscle mass and strength, and decreases pain. Electrical stimulation, also called e-stim, is recommended for pets recovering from orthopedic surgery, fracture repairs, spinal cord injuries, or several other neurological or orthopedic conditions in which the use of a limb is inhibited.
Russian Stimulation was the earliest name for this stimulation type. Burst Mode Alternating Current (BMAC) is a generic and recently employed term. The timing (stimulation/rest/repetitions) protocols are considered as the core of treatment frequency. The 10/50/10 protocol is identified as being effective (this is stimulating for 10 seconds, leaving a 50 second rest period and repeating sequence for 10 minutes (i.e. 10 stim/rest cycles) is effective.
Interferential therapy (IFT) is one of the various types of physical therapy. It uses a mid-frequency electrical signal to treat muscular spasms and strains. The current produces a massaging effect over the affected area at periodic intervals, and this stimulates the secretion of endorphins, the body’s natural pain relievers, thus relaxing strained muscles and promoting soft-tissue healing. Its use is contraindicated if the affected area has wounds, cuts or infections.
Iontophoresis is based on the activity of “ions”, biological charged particles – water-soluble substances that have a positive or negative charge – and based on the principle that like charges repel and unlike charges attract. By using a direct (galvanic) current, an ion can be ‘pushed’ into the skin if the electrode (the active or working electrode) on which it is applied has the same charge as the ion. A positive ion (cation) is pushed into the skin by a positive electrode (anode) and a negative ion (anion) by a negative electrode (cathode).